When did the ritualistic worship of Lord Krushna begin?

* The spelling ‘Krushna’ is used instead of ‘Krishna’ as it is more appropriate and in accordance with Sanskrit pronunciation.



Krushna belonged to the Satvat clan of the Yadav dynasty. After He renounced His body this clan began worshipping Him. This was a kind of beginning of the Path of Devotion (Bhaktimarg). The Alvar saints of Tamilnadu in South India propagated the devotion of Krushna.

2. Ritualistic worship (puja) and religious festivals

Krushna being Vishnu’s incarnation is worshipped just like Vishnu. (Refer ‘Chapter 12 : Vishnu, point – Ritualistic worship’.) The birth of Krushna is celebrated on the eighth day (ashtami) of the dark fortnight of Shravan at midnight.

3. Gopichandan

‘गोप्‍य: नाम विष्‍णुपत्‍न्‍य: तासां चन्‍दनं आल्‍हादकम्‌’ means that which imparts Bliss to the consorts of Krushna is gopichandan (गोपीचन्‍दन). It is also named Vishnuchandan.

This is a kind of white mud found in Dvarka. The holy texts say that just as sins are cleansed by bathing in the Ganga, so also by applying a paste of gopichandan all sins are overcome. It is customary to apply gopichandan to the forehead amidst chanting of the Vishnu Gayatri mantra.

4. Chanting of the mantra ‘Hare Krushna

Kalisantaran Upanishad is a part of the Krushnayajurveda and is also referred to as the Harinamopanishad. This Upanishad was narrated by Lord Brahma to Sage Narad at the end of the Dvaparyug. The gist of this text is that solely by chanting the Name of Lord Narayaß are the ill-effects due to the influence of Kali destroyed. This Name is comprised of the following sixteen words.

Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare
Hare Krushna Hare Krushna Krushna Krushna Hare Hare
हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे।
हरे कृष्‍ण हरे कृष्‍ण कृष्‍ण कृष्‍ण हरे हरे ।।

These sixteen words are associated with the sixteen stages (kalas) of the embodied soul. This mantra has the capacity to destroy the covering of the embodied soul. Some followers of the Krushna sect chant the second line of the mantra first.’

5. Krushna Gayatri

1.  देवकीनन्‍दनाय विद्महे । वासुदेवाय धीमहि ।
      तन्‍न: कृष्‍ण: प्रचोदयात्‌ ।।
Meaning: We are quite familiar with Krushna, the son of Devaki. We meditate on Vasudev. May that Krushna inspire our intellect benevolently.

2.  दामोदराय विद्महे । वासुदेवाय धीमहि ।
      तन्‍न: कृष्‍ण: प्रचोदयात्‌ ।।
Meaning: We are quite familiar with Damodar. We meditate on Vasudev. May that Krushna inspire our intellect benevolently.

6. Yantras and bijamantras

Three yantras of Lord Krushna are well-known. ‘Klim’ is Krushna’s one letter yantra or bijamantra.

7. Main sects

  • Sanak (Nimbarka): Radha is Lord Krushna’s Blissful Energy (Alhadinishakti).
  • Pushti (Vallabh): Rama, Lakshmi or Bhu are the Divine Energies endowing opulence and the gopi is the Energy bestowing gentleness (Madhuryashakti).
  • Radhavallabh: Radha is the supreme object of worship and Krushna being Her worshipper is worthy of worship.
  • Chaitanya: Devotion through intense emotion is its spiritual practice. The gopis represent Blissful Energy. The founder of this sect ‘Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’ was born in 1485 A.D. in Bangal.
  • Mahanubhav: This was founded by Swami Chakradhar.
  • The new sect ‘Hare Krushna’ was founded in Bangal in recent times.


Why did Lord Krushna narrate Gita only to Arjun?

* The spelling ‘Krushna’ is used instead of ‘Krishna’ as it is more appropriate and in accordance with Sanskrit pronunciation.

Lord Krushna and Arjun

The Mahabharat and the Gita

1. The Mahabharat is the most important part of Krushna’s life. Written by Sage Vyas it is a prominent historical text. Bhiíhmacharya was the ‘Guru’ of the Kouravs in the Mahabharat. Before Bhishma’s birth His mother Ganga had abandoned His seven elder brothers (vasus) in the river Ganga. Krushna was the Guru of the Pandavs. Kansa had slain Krushna’s seven elder siblings.

2. Eklavya had developed ego that ‘I have learnt archery by myself, without anyone’s guidance’. To destroy that ego of his, Dronacharya asked him for his right thumb, a representation of the ego.

3. At the time of the Bharatiya war Krushna was about 83 years old while Bhishma was more than 130 years old.

4. The Gita makes a mention only of the four persons given below.

Person Mode of speech (vani) Characteristics
Dhrutarashtra Vaikhari Blind
Sanjay Madhyama One bestowed with
divine vision
Arjun Pashyanti The soul
Krushna Para The Supreme God

5. Krushna narrated the Gita only to Arjun for the following reasons.

  • The confusion in Arjun’s mind was not due to emotions, it stemmed from intellect.
  • Arjun was Gudakesha (v) that is the one who could comprehend the implied meaning (gudha means secret) in Keshav’s (Krushna’s) speech. At the beginning of the Gita Arjun tells Krushna, ‘Senayorubhayormadhye ratham sthapaya me chyut (सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्‍ये रथं स्‍थापय मेऽच्‍युत|)’ (Shrimadbhagvadgita 1:21). It means ‘O Achyut, place my chariot in the midst of both the armies’. Here, of the several Names of Krushna Achyut is used because Arjun is referring to the Krushna who does not deflect from His responsibilities, the one who is unflinching. ‘In the midst of both the armies’ implies between the good and the evil. Thus He asks Krushna to take him beyond all kinds of duality.

6. The Uddhavgita: When Krushna renounced His body His great friend Uddhav was greatly bereaved. What Krushna preached to him at that time is called the Uddhavgita.

7. Point ‘4.11’ explains the teachings of the Gita in brief.

8. The Dnyaneshvari describes the Gita as

Consider the Gita as the idol of The Lord
embellished with words. – 18:1684

9. Anugita: When Krushna realised that the effect of the Gita on Arjun’s mind was wearing out, He narrated it to him once again. This repetition is called the Anugita. Anu means later. So,the Anugita is the Gita which is narrated once again.


How did Lord Krushna end His Incarnation?

* The spelling ‘Krushna’ is used instead of ‘Krishna’ as it is more appropriate and in accordance with Sanskrit pronunciation.


1. Renunciation of the body

When the Yadavs fought amongst themselves and most died at Prabhas, Balaram renounced His body in the sea, that is He took jalasamadhi. Then one day, when Krushna was seated below the ashvattha tree with His left foot on His right thigh, a hunter named Jara mistook Him for a deer and shot an arrow which struck the sole of His left foot. When the hunter came close he realised his mistake and asked Krushna for forgiveness. Krushna pacified him and sent him to heaven. The place where this incident occurred is called ‘Bhalakatirtha’. Bhal means the tip of a spear or an arrow. At that time Krushna’s charioteer Daruk appeared there. As he alighted the chariot and approached Krushna, the chariot disappeared. Then Krushna directly merged His body into the five cosmic elements. (Saint Tukaram and Saint Muktai too have done the same.) According to some, the ashes of Subhadra, Balabhadra (Balaram) and Krushna were in a bamboo box which with the current of water reached Jagannathpuri. People installed the ashes there and began ritualistic worship.

On hearing that Krushna had culminated His incarnation Vasudev, Devaki and Rohini too renounced their bodies. Krushna’s eight wives entered the pyre and became satis. When Arjun came to know of this he went there and took the remaining wives and children of Krushna to his capital Indraprastha. After they left Dvarka, it too got submerged in the sea. Since without Krushna Arjun was powerless wild people attacked and defeated him and abducted the women.

Incarnations are not assumed according to destiny. Inspite of this ‘How is it that Rama had to take birth again as the incarnation Krushna in which He had to renounce His body after He was shot at with an arrow by Vali who was reborn as a hunter and whom He had slain with an arrow in the previous birth?’ is what some people wonder. Such examples are given only to emphasise the point that ‘one should not trouble another’. In reality in case of incarnations the concept of destiny does not hold good at all because throughout their lives their actions are non-actions (akarma karma). Apart from this those who are slain by them attain the Final Liberation (Moksha).

2. Chronological life events

Period of time Event
Before Shalivahan Shak Before Christ
3263 [the eighth day (ashtami) of
the dark fortnight of Shravan]
3185 Birth of Krushna
3244 3167 Slaying of Kansa
3241 3163 Akrur’s departure
to Hastinapur
3238 3160 Marriage to Rukmini
3236 3158 Birth of Pradyumna
3220 3142 Droupadi’s selection
of her groom (svayamvar)
3218 3140 Establishment of
3212 3134 Marriage of
3210 3132 Arjun’s embarking on
a pilgrimage
3198 3120 Abduction of
3196 3118 Birth of Abhimanyu
3195 3117 The rajasuya
sacrificial fire
3193 3115 Loss of Hastinapur in
a game of dice
3180 (Margashirsha) 3101 The Bhartiya war
3180 (Phalgun) 3101 Marriage of
3144 (Margashirsha) 3065 Krushna’s renunciation
(age 119) years

This chronology has been decided based mainly on the Mahabharat, the Harivansh and the Bhagvat.

3. Abode [the go region (Golok)]

Information on the go region of Krushna is given in the Padma and Brahmavaivarta Purans. This abode of Krushna is akin to Kailas of Shiva and Vaikunth of Vishnu.

4. Science behind the idol

With regard to the various facets in Krushna’s life various types of idols are given below. The variation seen in these idols is exceptional. It is not seen in the idols of other deities or incarnations.

A. The infant form

  • Santangopal: The one clinging onto Yashoda’s waist
  • Balkrushna: The crawling Krushna. This idol adorns the temple in most homes.
  • Kaliyakrushna: The one slaying Kaliya, the serpent king.
  • Govardhandhari: The one lifting the Govardhan mountain.

B. Holding a flute

  • Radhakrushna (Venugopal): Krushna standing with His right foot crossed and held against the left border of the left foot while playing the flute with Radha standing beside Him.
  • Murlidhar: This idol of Krushna has four arms. Rukmini and Satyabhama are standing on either side of Him. These idols are common in South India.

C. Madangopal

Murlidhar with eight arms.

D. Parthasarathi

The one narrating the Gita to Arjun.


How did Lord Krushna acquire Sudarshan Chakra?

* The spelling ‘Krushna’ is used instead of ‘Krishna’ as it is more appropriate and in accordance with Sanskrit pronunciation.


1. Origin and meaning

Sudarshan Chakra

Sudarshan Chakra

The word sudarshan chakra (सुदर्शन चक्र) is derived from two words, su (सु) and darshan (दर्शन). It means the vision (darshan) of which is auspicious (su). The word chakra is derived from chruhu (चृ:)which means movement and kruhu (कृ:) which means to do. Thus chakra means that which is mobile. Of all weapons this is the only one which is constantly in motion.

2. Creation and history

There are various schools of thought regarding its creation as given below.

1. It was created by the combined energy of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh.

2. This was given by Bruhaspati, the Guru of the deities to Vishnu.

3. Krushna procured it from the deities (devatamandal).

4. Krushna and Arjun assisted the fire deity (Agni) in burning the Khandav forest. In return He presented Krushna with a discus and a koumodaki mace.

5. Female deities like Narayani, Vaishnodevi, etc. also wield discuses in Their hands

3. Special features

1. Krushna usually holds the discus on His little finger while Vishnu on His index finger. However when aiming it at something Krushna too would do so with His index finger.

2. After its release the enemy is annihilated and it returns to the attacker.

3. Even after releasing it, it remains within the control of the attacker.

4. It travels along the path of zero stress nature and can reach anywhere within a moment. Refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 7 – Supreme God, God, Incarnations and Deities, point – Destiny and The Supreme Soul’.

5. When an obstruction is posed by the enemy the speed of the discus is augmented. This is called the rhansa speed.

6. It is soundless.

4. Composition

Information with regard to its composition is as given below.

1. ‘It is said that it has six spokes and its centre is composed of vajra. It is believed that the words “Sahasrat hum phat (सहस्रात्‌ हुं फट्‍)” are inscribed on each of the spokes.

2. A novel description of the discus has been made in the Vaman Puran (82.23-26). Mr. Vasudevsharan Agraval expresses it as: The discus has been described as the discus of time (kalachakra). It consists of twelve spokes (Dvadashar, Rugveda 1.164.11) and six navels. The twelve spokes represent the twelve months of the Hindu lunar calender and also the twelve deities (Vij, Agni, Som, Mitra, Varun, Indra, Indragni, Vayu, Vishvedev, Prajapati, Dhanvantari, etc.). The six navels represent the six seasons.’

3. Parts of the discus and the implied meaning

  • The middle stable part: It is named bhruvi (equality), bhag (radiance), nirdesh (speed) and sampada (endowed with the nectar of nutrition).
  • The spokes: It has twenty-seven spokes charged with the run energy of the twenty-seven feminine principles created from Prajapati. These spokes contain the yoginipanchak, that is the basic components of the five cosmic elements. The energy in all feminine principles is beyond the restrictions of direction and time.
    • Yogini: ‘योगं नियते इति’ means the one who bestows the energy which is unattainable.
    • Lakshmi: The one who bestows one with the achievement of the target (lakshyam) or the absolute truth.
    • Narayani: All pervading
    • Murdhini: Murdha is the linear part included in the longitudinal section between the centre of the eyebrows and the vertebral column. It is referred to as the line of the head (mastakresha). Murdhini refers to the frequencies which intersect the head directly. These frequencies are present in rudrakshas too. Murdhini or Murdhivahini refers to that which flows through the murdha.
    • Randhra: The speed or energy which transforms into the subtlemost.
  • Parigh: This is constituted by the following eight masculine principles.
    • Aditya: ‘आदि: अत:’ means the radiance which first came into existence and is still persisting.
    • Varuni: Varun is the deity of water. Varun exercises control over the dikbhavs, that is those created from the directions. The dikbhavs are the main centres of the directions. Hence no matter in which direction the discus travels, it is never obstructed.
    • Juhu: The subtlemost speed which is enriched with the radiance (jyoti) derived from the lunar asterisms.
    • Indra: Frequencies displaying greatness.
    • Narayan: The one endowed with the energy of movement of the Navanarayans, the nine serpents [from the universal spiritual energy flow system (kundalini)]
    • Navadha: The Navanarayan, navanag and navavidh concept combined together mean navadha.
    • Gandhi: Those who can travel on the earth.
    • Mahish: The Blissful principle in Mahesh.
  • Size of the discus: It is so tiny that it can be kept on the tip of a leaf of the tulsi plant and at the same time is so vast that it can encompass the entire universe.

5. Illustrations of its use

1. When Lord Krushna lifted the Govardhan mountain for support He held the discus below it.

2. Krushna used it to slay Shishupal.

3. It was used to create an artificial sunset so that Jayadrath could be annihilated. However it was not used by Krushna in the Bharatiya war or in any other battle to slay anyone.

4. When Arjun said that Maruti would not be able to break the bridge of arrows created by him, although Maruti jumped on it, it did not break. This was because to help His friend Arjun, Krushna had supported the bridge placing His discus below it.

5. When Lord Vishnu was enraged with Sage Durvas for having needlessly cursed His beloved devotee King Ambarish, He flung the discus onto Him. The petrified sage ran to the deities, but no one could rescue Him. Finally when He went to Lord Vishnu, The Lord asked Him to beg the king for forgiveness. When the sage complied Vishnu withdrew His discus.

6. It is quoted in a holy text of the Nath sect that once Gorakshanath had stopped the discus.

6. Science behind the idol

‘The idol sporting the discus is fearsome. It has sixteen arms adorned with a conch, a discus, a bow, an axe, a sword, an arrow, a pike, a noose, a goad, fire, a horn of a rhinoceros, a shield, a plough, a pestle, a mace and a spear as weapons. In some places it is customary to consider an idol sporting a discus as that of Lord Vishnu’s.’


What is the real relationship between Radha and Sri Krushna ?

Sri Krushna and Radha



1. Birth

Krushna belonged to the royal dynasty while Radha to an ordinary milkman’s family. Like Sita, She too was born out of a resolve (sankalpa).

2. Special features

Radha is the manifest form of devotion unto Krushna. In response to the question ‘How devoted should one be ?’ the Naradbhaktisutra writes ‘Like the gopis (wives of the cowherds) of Vraj (यथा व्रजगोपिकानाम्‌)’. Krushna Himself sent His great friend Uddhav to the gopis to teach him what devotion meant. The incident goes as follows –

Once to display the devotion of the gopis to others Krushna pretended that He had intense headache which did not respond to any medicine. Then He pronounced, ‘Krushna’s pain will vanish with the application of mud beneath anyone’s feet. However the one giving the mud beneath his feet will die. Proclaim this and then bring the mud which someone gives.’ No one was prepared to give the mud from under his feet.

On entering Gokul when Uddhav asked this question to the first gopi that he met, she replied, “If the mud under my feet will relieve Krushna’s headache then I am even prepared to go to hell.”

The devotion of the gopis is an illustration of ultimate devotion. Radha among them was like a jewel in the crown.

3. Futility of misinterpretation of the Radha-Krushna relationship

Radha’s spiritual love (priti), that is devotion unto Krushna has been misinterpreted as love in the Radha-Krushna relationship. Its futility will be realised if one considers Krushna’s age at that time. When Krushna left Gokul permanently He was only seven years old; thus His relationship with Radha was only during the period when He was three to seven years old.

4. The flute

The sound of the flute means the anahat sound. That sound had maddened all the gopis (wives of the cowherds). So one will realise how highly spiritually evolved they were. When leaving Gokul, Krushna gave His flute to Radha and never played it again. Thus He made sure that She constantly got the spiritual experience of Absoluteness (Purnatva) which is superior to anahat sound.

5. Implied meaning

5.1. ‘Water flows from a higher to a lower level. It is called a stream (dhara). When the letters of the word dhara (धारा) are reversed the word becomes radha (राधा). That stream which flows from below upwards is called radhagati. When it reaches the origin, it gets a spiritual experience of being Radha Herself. Acquisition of this state itself is called “blending into zero” or “sainthood”. In other words Radha and Krushna were one and the same. Krushna had Himself assumed Radha’s form to love Himself. Hence although Radha had merged into Krushna, She continued to worship Him for the sake of guiding the other gopis, that is attitudes. One will think that once a gopi reaches the zenith she will see several Radhas. Those following Radha, that is those seekers following the Path of Devotion will see only one Radha because there is no duality in spiritual love, only non-duality.’ – H.H. Kane Maharaj, Narayangaon

5.2. According to the Tantrik and Vaishnavite sects Rukmini representing the Energy of opulence is one of the two Divine Energies (Shaktis) of Krushna while Radha is the Blissful Energy (Ahladini).

A. The Energy of opulence: ‘When Sudama came to meet Krushna he brought along four handfuls of puffed rice. Even that was borrowed by his wife, from a neighbour. After Krushna had eaten just a pinch of the puffed rice Rukmini snatched it from His hands and said, “We are 16,008 in number. Let us all partake of atleast one grain.” She did this because She knew that if Krushna ate even a pinch, Sudama’s city would turn into gold. So if He were to eat everything then the eight supernatural powers along with the entire wealth from the three regions – earth, nether world and heaven would have to serve Sudama all their lives. So great would be the opulence that he would acquire. Rukmini did this because She was the Energy of opulence rather the deity of wealth, Lakshmi. If a devotee of The Lord has devotion with expectation (sakam) then it is only the Energy of opulence which stops him from acquiring all types of opulence totally.’ – H.H. Kane Maharaj, Narayangaon. In short, the Energy of opulence helps in endowing a devotee having expectation with some opulence while the Blissful Energy imparts the spiritual experience of Bliss to the devotee without expectation (nishkam).

B. The Blissful Energy: Radha was the Blissful Energy. She never intervened when The Lord endowed someone with riches because Her incarnation was meant for spiritual emotion generated from devotion. Hence that spiritual emotion (bhav) is referred to as Radhabhav. The spiritual emotion of Radha (Radhabhav) or Radha refers to the Adnya chakra.The implied meaning behind this is when a worldly person or a Guru merges into Krushna when carrying out worldly transactions or preaching to disciples respectively they descend to the level of the Adnya chakra.

This stream of spiritual emotion progressing from below upwards in other words is the progress of the devotee towards Self-realisation. Radha being Krushna Himself was a devotee who remained absorbed in Bliss. She certainly does not obstruct someone from being gifted with opulence. Even if God were to endow someone with Bliss She would not stop Him because Her Bliss never declines. The moral behind this is that by giving opulence to others it decreases, Bliss does not.

In reality, internally were Rukmini and Radha distinct from each other? Certainly not. But They behaved according to the mission of Krushna’s incarnation. Though They were merged into Krushna They did not become separate because to become separate one needs to have ego. Since The Lord does not have ego His actions (karmas) are referred to as divine play (lila) and the play of man are called actions because of his ego.

5.3. ‘Radha was first created in the Go region (Golok) and then became Krushna’s lover. Later She was born in Vrundavan to the cowherd (gopa), Vrushbhanu and became the idol of the devotees in Vrajamandal. She married a Vaishya (businessman) youth named Shashan; actually it was only Her replica which married him. Keeping Her image in Her physical body Radha left that body and merged Herself into Krushna’s heart in Her primal form.’

6. The divine play of Lord Krushna (rasalila)

The word rasa (रस) has originated from two sources – (रसानां समूह:) means the collection of nine rasas and (रस: उत्‍पद्यते यस्‍मात्‌) means that from which ras is generated. The rasa dance (rasakrida) is a beautiful event in the lives of Krushna and the gopis (wives of the cowherds). During the dance Krushna endowed them with the spiritual experience of non-duality (advait).

Why is Lord Krushna considered an absolute incarnation ?



1. Origin and meaning

  • Krushna (कृष्‍ण): ‘(आ)कर्षणम् करोति इति’ means the one who attracts.
  • Vasudev : This is one of the Names of Sri Krushna.
    • He is called Vasudev since He is the son of Vasudev.
    • Vasu (वासु) + dev (देव) = Vasudev (वासुदेव). Vasaha (वास:) means sustenance or the reinstatement of sustenance. From among creation, sustenance and dissolution the deity who governs sustenance is Vasudev.
    • The deity who bestows the frequencies necessary for life on the earth, to acquire a specific state is Vasudev. (Atharvaveda)
    • When ahat and anahat sound waves travel together with the same speed, their combined path is called Vasudev. (Samaveda)
    • The state which consists of the combination of sound and light is called Vasudev. [Gandharvaveda – Sangitveda, a sub (upa) – Veda of the Samaveda]

2. Birth

2.1 Date (tithi)

Krushna was born on the eighth day (ashtami) of the Hindu lunar month of Shravan. The number eight is a reducing number (kshayank). Rama was born on the ninth day (navami) of the Hindu lunar month of Chaitra. Nine is a complete number (purnank). Information on reducing and complete numbers is given under point ‘14. Rama and Krushna’. According to numerology number eight is responsible for generating revolutionary thoughts. It would not be wrong to say that Krushna’s entire life was an era of revolution.

2.2 Incarnations of other deities

Along with The Lord other deities too assume incarnations. Based on this rule when Lord Vishnu incarnated as Krushna, what incarnations the other deities assumed and whose incarnations the others were is given in the table below.

Incarnation Whose Incarnation? Incarnation Whose Incarnation?
A. In the context of Krushna
Devak Gandharvaraj Vasudev Kashyap
Devaki Aditi Balaram Adishesh
Shrikrushna Vishnu, Sage
Gopal Subordinate
The cows Sages Radha Indra’s queen
Rukmini Adimaya Pradyumna Sanatkumar
Kansa Kalnemi Jarasandha Viprachitti
Kubja** Manthara Keshi Hayagriv
B. In the context of Kouravs and Pandavs
Kunti Siddhi Madri Dhruti
Drupad Varun Dharma
Arjun Indra, Sage
Bhim Yayu (deity of
Nakul-Sahadev Ashvinikumars Droupadi Parvati
The five sons of
Vishvedev Virat Marut
Dhrushtadyumna Pavak (Agni) Maruti*** The eleventh
rudra, Shiva

* She had performed austerities so that Lord Vishnu would love her.
** Rama had cursed Manthara for her bad deeds. When she begged for a mitigation of the curse Rama had told her that He would uplift her in His next incarnation.
*** He was seated on the flag hoisted on Arjun’s chariot.

3. Implied meaning of some members of the family and relatives

3.1 The brother : Balaram was Krushna’s brother. He carries a plough shaped like ‘ ८ ’ (8) the number eight in Sanskrut in His hand. This implies that He has control over Prakruti consisting of the eight principles. The eight principles of Prakruti are the five basic cosmic elements, the mind, the subconscious mind and the intellect.

3.2 The maternal uncle : Kansa was the brother of Krushna’s mother. Once when King Ugrasen had gone on a battle, a demon expressed the desire to have intercourse with his queen, Pavankumari. In response she said, “I am willing provided the child born from this union will become an emperor.” The demon agreed to this and so Kansa was born. Kansa thus had a demoniacal rather than a sattvik (sattva predominant) attitude unlike King Ugrasen. Later Krushna slew Kansa. Literally in arithmetic kansa means a bracket ( ) which symbolises limitation. Since Kansa’s prowess was limited he could not withstand Krushna.

3.3 The wives : Rukmini was Krushna’s chief queen. His seven other main queens were Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Satya, Bhadra and Lakshmana. These eight queens represent the eightfold Prakruti. The implied meaning is that the eight principles are within the control of Krushna. Krushna married the 16,000 princesses imprisoned by Narkasur after freeing them, so that they acquired social status. The 16,000 princesses represent the 16,000 spiritual energy flow channels (nadis) in the body. Marrying them means activating them.

4. Special features and mission

Krushna was an absolute incarnation (purnavtar). His special features are given in ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 7 – Supreme God, God, Incarnations and Deities’. Actually an absolute incarnation is not an incarnation but The Lord Himself; hence it possesses all the characteristics of The Lord. Some special features and missions of Sri Krushna are enumerated below.

4.1 Childhood

From birth till the naming : Devaki and Vasudev were the parents of Krushna. On the command of Lord Vishnu, the Great Illusion (Yogamaya) placed the seventh child of Devaki in the womb of Vasudev’s second wife, Rohini and Herself entered the womb of Devaki. After birth when Kansa came to kill Her, She escaped from his clutches and left for Her abode. Krusshna is Devaki’s eighth child. After He was born, Vasudev took Him to the home of Nanda and Yashoda in Gokul. Vasudev also sent Rohini along with her son to Gokul. The priest of the Yadu dynasty,

Sage Garga at the request of Vasudev, secretly performed the naming ceremony of both the children, Rohini’s son as Rama and Devaki’s as Krushna. Later Rama came to be known as Balaram because of the tremendous strength that He possessed.

Childhood for only seven years : Krushna went to Mathura to slay Kansa at the age of seven years. It was then that His childhood ended.

The region on the outskirts of Mathura is called Vraj (व्रज). ‘व्रजन्‍ति गावो यस्‍मिन्‍निति व्रज:|’

means the place where cattle graze and roam is Vraj. Since Infant Krushna’s divine play took place here, this place is said to be sacred.

Intelligent : After the slaying of Kansa and the thread ceremony, Balaram and Krushna went to the ashram of Guru Sandipani in the city of Avanti. There within a span of sixty-four days He learnt the fourteen types of sciences (vidyas) and the sixty-four arts (kalas). Generally to learn one science one requires two to two and a half years.

Elders heeding His advice : He was close even to people who were much older than Him. At the age of just seven Krushna did not allow the milkmaids to go to Mathura because He did not want the money that was procured by selling milk to evil Kansa. Since then, the elders began to heed His advice and He proved true to their faith.

Bestower of spiritual experiences

A. Once the cowherds (gopas) told Yashoda, “Krushna has swallowed mud.” So, she asked Krushna to open His mouth. When He opened it, she got the vision of the entire universe in it. This example illustrates how an incarnation carries out its mission even in childhood.

B. On a moonlit night in autumn (sharad) He performed the rasa dance (rasakrida) with the gopis (wives of the cowherds) in Gokul. At that time they experienced Bliss (Brahmanand).

4.2 Physical :

Krushna’s beauty was unparalleled. All would get enticed by it.

4.3 Historical :

To capture Krushna, Jarasandha’s armies surrounded Mathura eighteen times. Nowhere in the world have so many attempts been made to capture an individual. Kansa ferried 280 elephants on wooden rafts across the Yamuna river. He surrounded Mathura for three months, but Krushna could not be captured because He would change His home everyday. Apart from this the thousand children living in Mathura also wore peacock feathers in their hair to resemble Krushna. Kansa’s soldiers assaulted them, yet they did not reveal ‘who the real Krushna was’.

4.4 Familial

  • The ideal son : Krushna behaved in a way which pleased both His parents Vasudev and Devaki and His guardians Nanda and Yashoda.
  • The ideal brother : Krushna would respect His elder brother, Balaram.
  • The ideal husband : When it is so difficult to please just one wife, Krushna could please 16,008 wives! Narad’s attempts to create strife between them failed.
  • The ideal father : Because His sons behaved unrighteously, He Himself slew them during the battle of the Yadus.
  • The ideal friend : Krushna affectionately welcomed His poverty-stricken childhood friend Sudama even when He became the ruler of Dvarka. Due to His friendship with the Pandavs, He constantly rushed to their aid. The Pandavs worshipped Krushna as a friend (sakhyabhakti).

4.5 A lover of arts

Krushna loved the arts of dance, music, etc. and was an expert in them. His playing of the flute and His performance of the rasa dance (rasakrida) are famous. Even the animals and birds would get enticed when He played the flute.

4.6 Social

1. The one who did not tolerate injustice (valorous) : Krushna either fought Himself or assisted others in fighting the injustice caused by Kansa, Jarasandha, the Kouravs, etc.

2. The one who was conscientious about His duties towards society : Realising that the 16,000 princesses released from Narkasur’s prison would not have any social standing which would result in several problems, Krushna married them.

3. The one who worked for the welfare of others : Some people criticise Krushna’s behaviour. However all that He did was for others’ welfare. At times, He even broke norms, for instance, when slaying Jarasandha, during the abduction of Subhadra so that she could marry Arjun, marrying the 16,000 women, etc. During the Bharatiya war He had pledged that ‘He would not wield a weapon’. Yet to fulfill Bhishmacharya’s vow that ‘I will make Krushna wield a weapon’, Krushna broke His vow and attacked Bhishmacharya with a weapon (a wheel).

4. The one who guided others for the welfare of society : ‘Protection of society was His objective and He had realised that it was necessary to annihilate the troublemakers and evildoers to achieve this end. Destruction of evildoers is never possible by remaining steadfast unto truth and purity alone. Realising this sad shortcoming in the history of mankind, to protect truth and purity they have to be curbed in worldly interactions. If that is not done, then in this lawless world, cruel demons triumph, society deteriorates and the subjects are destroyed. This was the firm decision of His intellect. It is because of this that many a time “Often the untruth seems superior to the truth”, “One has to give up Righteousness (Dharma) and fight”, “Bhimsen will not be successful if he fights righteously, it is essential to fight unrighteously”, etc. is the advice that He often preached.’

4.7 An expert politician

1. An excellent orator : With His eloquent speeches, Krushna was able to win over several people to the camp of the Pandavs.

2. An ideal ambassador : Krushna presented the case of the Pandavs in the royal court of the Kouravs in an excellent manner.

3. The one who made good use of psychology : At the opportune moment Krushna told Karna the secret of his birth and thus upset his mental composure.

4.8 Regarding battles

1. An expert in warfare:

A. A master in archery : Akin to Arjun, Krushna won over His queen Lakshmana by striking the eye of a fish with His arrow.
B. A master in wielding the mace : Krushna slew Vakradanta in a fight using maces.
C. A master wrestler : Krushna slew Chanur in a fist fight (mushtiyuddha).

2. Brave and valiant : Krushna slew several evil monarchs and demons possessing illusory powers.

3. Brave : Though Jarasandha and Kalyavan, two powerful kings attacked at the same time, Krushna bravely protected the Yadavs.

4. An excellent charioteer : In the Bharatiya war Krushna skillfully steered Arjun’s chariot.

4.9 Selfless

Krushna slew Kansa and several other kings, established the golden city of Dvarka, yet did not ascend the throne. Despite this undoubtedly He was the uncrowned emperor of His times.

4.10 Polite

During the rajasuya sacrificial fire (yadnya) of the Pandavs, Krushna washed the feet of the Brahmans and even cleared up leftovers of food in others’ plates.

4.11 A great philosopher

The philosophy preached by Krushna is given in the Gita. ‘In His philosophy Krushna has shown the appropriate admixture of attachment and detachment. He has accepted the Path of Action (Karmayoga) according to the Vedas, Path of Knowledge according to the Sankhya philosophy, suppression of the tendencies of the subconscious mind according to the Path of Yoga and renunciation (sannyas) according to the Vedanta, but has opposed the view that each one of them is the ultimate by itself as proposed by them. He balanced the appropriate significant part of each one harmoniously and created a new doctrine based on actions devoid of expectations or results. In the Bhagvadgita He has mainly preached how one should carry out one’s duty. The scriptures decide what one’s duties should be, but He has explained excellently how to execute them well. In the Bhagvadgita He has narrated to Arjun how to convert attachment to detachment and vice versa and how man should execute his duties.’

4.12 The Guru

Krushna eliminated Arjun’s doubts by narrating the Gita to him verbally and imparting him with spiritual experiences which are beyond words. During the Bharatiya war Krushna had adopted the dnyanmudra (mudra of knowledge).

4.13 The one with the attributes of God

1. Supernatural powers and a peacock feather : Krushna had eighteen supernatural powers in all, eight being the eight great supernatural powers (ashtamahasiddhis) – His eight wives and the rest His own (God’s) ten supernatural powers. It was with one of these supernatural powers that Krushna assuming a form of the provider of clothes saved Droupadi’s honour by providing clothing to her when she was being stripped in the court of the Kouravs.

The centre of minute observation is the focus of suprasensory energy. When it gets activated the house of Vaishvanar and the horoscope in it assume the form of a peacock feather. The peacock feather adorned by Sri Krushna signified that this centre in Him was perpetually active. For more information on this refer ‘Science of Spirituality : Vol. 18 – Path of Activation of Spiritual Energy (Kundaliniyoga) and Path of Transfer of Energy (Shaktipatyoga)’.

2. A lover of all living beings : When the king of bears Jambuvant, requested Krushna to marry his daughter Jambavati, despite opposition from others, He married her. It is difficult for one to even conceive of such an idea.

4.14 Effects of His Special features

The following examples will illustrate the effects of all His special features on others.

1. In the Bharatiya war, no one ventured to attack Krushna. The other charioteers were attacked.

2. After the war, there was a conversation between a vulture and a fox about the deceased. In it, they have discussed the faults of all men, including those of Yudhishthir; but not a single one of Krushna.

Why could Sri Krushna perform Rasleela?



1. Divine play (Rasleela)

At the mention of Rasleela an alluring scene of the festival of Ras (Rasotsav) created by Sri Krushna along with Radha and the other gopees on the full moon night in early autumn (Sharad rutu) flashes before our eyes. The festival of Ras, as described in the Sreemadbhagawat Puran, began on the full moon night in the Sharad season and continued all night until daybreak. Saint Kabeerjee elucidates about the devotion of gopees:

कबीर कबीर क्‍या कहे । जाओ जमुना तीर ।
इक गोपीके प्‍यारमें । बह गए लाख कबीर । – संत कबीर

Meaning: Do not consider Kabeer a superior devotee. Go to the banks of the river Yamuna and look at the gopees. The unconditional love they have for Bhagawan Sri Krushna is superior to lacs of Kabeers.

1.1 Qualities of gopees

A. Attitude of service: The gopees had intense spiritual emotion (bhav) to serve Sri Krushna. Hence, they served Him with their body, mind and intellect.

B. Intense spiritual practice (sadhana) The gopees did intense spiritual practice. That is why they were able to achieve the levels of Divine consciousness (Chaitanya), bliss (Anand) and serenity (Shanti) in a short span of time.

C. The best disciples: All the gopees had the qualities of an ideal disciple. So their every action right from contemplating on Him to serving Him was performed without expectation, with utmost spiritual emotion (bhav) and at a spiritual level.

D. Lack of ego: The most unique feature of the gopees was the total lack of ego.

1.2 Reasons why Sri Krushna could perform Rasleela

Sri Krushna had only one thought that the Rasleela could bring about spiritual progress of the gopees. There was no trace of even subtle ego in Sri Krushna. Despite this in Kaliyug, Rasleela, the relationship between Sri Krushna with gopees and with Radha is viewed with suspicion. In one periodical, the relationship of Sri Krushna and Radha is elucidated as the world’s most famous love story. This is wrong and it is necessary to refute this.

Futile allegations on the relationship between Radha and Krushna: The futility of allegations labelled against the relationship between Radha-Krushna is evident from Sri Krushna’s age at that time. When Sri Krushna left Gokul, His age was just seven years. After leaving Gokul, He never returned. One more point to be noted is that Shukacharya, the embodiment of detachment is the proponent of Rasleela.

2. Daheekala

The mixture of various food items like curd, milk and butter is called daheekala or kalewa. The kalewa consists of puffed rice, milk, curd, buttermilk and butter. Kalewa depicts devotion. Later a custom of making the kalewa and breaking an earthen pot containing curd kept at a height on the day after Gokulashtamee became prevalent. This is called Divine play of breaking a daheematakee (daheematakee-fod leela). On this day, the pyramid of youths (called Govindas) standing one over the other to break the pot are seen everywhere. Today under the pretext of the custom of ‘breaking the daheematakee’ many malpractices like forcible collection of funds, obscene dancing, eve-teasing, lady Govindas etc. occur publicly.

2.1 Daheematakee

A flow of the Principle of Supreme God, Chaitanya and Shakti is attracted through the medium of the coconut kept in the daheematakee tied at a height. Thereafter a spiral of the Principle of Supreme God, Chaitanya and Shakti is created in the daheematakee. Chaitanya flows through the festoon (bandhanvar).

2.2 Why is breaking the daheematakee by women considered inappropriate?

It is evident through above subtle-picture that the daheematakee has the ability to attract good vibrations. Despite this, why is breaking the daheematakee by women considered inappropriate?

  • Due to high ego a spiral of tama-guna is created in the women breaking the daheematakee.
  • A black covering is formed on their intellect.
  • Due to breaking the daheematakee by women, a raja predominant spiral is created in the daheematakee.
  • Raja predominant flows are emitted into the environment due to the sound created by breaking the daheematakee.
  • Raja predominant spirals are emitted continuously towards the pyramid of women standing one above the other.
  • A black tama predominant spiral is created around the daheematakee.
  • Tama predominant flows are emitted in the environment.
  • A thorny tama predominant spiral is created in the women breaking the daheematakee.
  • Tama predominant particles are emitted in the environment.
  • A black covering is formed around the body.

The constitution of women is not appropriate for breaking the daheematakee. Therefore women do not get the inherent benefit of breaking the daheematakee.

2.3 Why is breaking the daheematakee with money in it is considered as malpractice?

Nowadays, money is kept in the daheematakee. This is also a malpractice.

  • The people breaking the daheematakee for money have high ego. Therefore, a black ball of ego is generated in them.
  • Greed increases in such people and a spiral of greed is generated in them. Due to these thoughts of greed the negative energies attack the intellect of these people.
  • An illusory (mayavee) spiral is generated around the daheematakee due to money being kept in it instead of kalewa.
  • Due to the use of currency notes instead of festoons (bandhanvar) illusory frequencies are emitted into the environment.
  • Illusory (mayavee) particles are emitted into the environment.
  • An illusory (mayavee) spiral is created around the people breaking daheematakee.
  • A tama predominant flow of the negative energy is attracted in the daheematakee from the environment.
  • A tama predominant spiral is created through it. Black tama predominant flows are emitted into the environment and due to the spread of the black particles in the environment it gets polluted.
  • Black tama predominant spirals revolve in the body of the people in an activated form.
  • Tamasik inertia predominant spirals are emitted from the pyramid of the people erected for daheematakee.
  • A black covering is created around the bodies of people breaking the daheematakee.

2.4 Breaking daheematakee with spiritual emotion towards God

Breaking the daheematakee is reminiscing the Divine play (leela) of Bhagawan Sri Krushna. When this act is performed with appropriate bhav towards God one definitely acquires additional benefits from it.

  • As the person breaking daheematakee has spiritual emotion (bhav) towards God and the yearning for God-realisation, a spiral of bhav is generated in his mind.
  • Due to the kaleva kept in the pot tied for daheematakee, Principle of Supreme God is attracted in the pot through the tuft of the coconut placed on the daheematakee.
  • A spiral of the Principle of Supreme God is generated in the daheematakee.
  • A flow of nirgun principle is attracted in the daheematakee.
  • A spiral of nirgun principle revolves in the daheematakee.
  • A flow of anand is attracted in the daheematakee from God and spiral of anand is generated.
  • Particles of anand in the form of Chaitanya spreads in the environment.
  • A flow of Chaitanya is attracted in the daheematakee from God. This leads to the generation or creation of a spiral of Chaitanya.
  • Flows of Chaitanya are emitted into the environment due to this spiral of Chaitanya.
  • Spirals of Chaitanya are emitted from the direction of the pyramid of people erected for breaking the daheematakee.
  • A spiral of Chaitanya is created in the people breaking the daheematakee.
  • Due to Chaitanya, the people breaking the daheematakee get the Chetana to function and a spiral of the Chetana-shakti is generated in them.
  • Particles of spiritual energy spread in the bodies of the people breaking the daheematakee.

2.5 The effects of breaking daheematakee

On breaking the daheematakee, the Principle of Supreme God attracted in the daheematakee is emitted into the environment in the form of flows.

  • Spirals of anand are emitted into the environment through the pot (matakee) and particles of anand spread in the environment.
  • Flows of Chaitanya are emitted into the environment through the spirals of Chaitanya.
  • Particles of Chaitanya are emitted into the environment through the flows of Chaitanya.

3. Importance of preventing denigration of deities

3.1 Disrespect of deities is an assault on our faith

Today the denigration of deities through the medium of plays, movies, advertisements, paintings etc. has become rampant. There are examples of such denigration about Bhagawan Sri Krushna too.

The significance of curbing the denigration of deities:

A. If a child watches mockery of Hanumanjee in an advertisement, would he recite Hanumanchaleesa or Hanumanstotra with complete devotion and sincerity ?

B. Curbing the denigration of deities through the medium of advertisement, plays, paintings etc. amounts to spiritual practice for the spread of Spirituality (samashti upasana). Both individual worship (vyashti upasana) and samashti upasana of the deity are important. Without samashti upasana the worship of the deity is incomplete.

C. By curbing the denigration of deities, Dharma is protected. Worshipping deities is an indispensible part of Dharma. Denigration of deities amounts to loss of Dharma. It is important to curb loss of Dharma. Sanatan Sanstha is working towards this in a legitimate way together with other like-minded individuals and organisations. Each individual can also participate in this mission.

3.2 Examples of denigration of Bhagawan Sri Krushna

1. The face of Sri Krushna used as a tattoo on the legs: The orrinhurley.com website used Bhagawan Sri Krushna’s face as a tattoo on the legs. It was named ‘Krushna snail’.

2. Denigration of gopee and Sri Krushna in an advertisement: For the publicity of its new short messaging service, a website – http://www.indiatimes.com showed an advertisement on its site. This new service was meant to encourage the youth to date as per the Western culture. In this advertisement a young man is shown wearing a blue attire like Sri Krushna but of Western style. He was shown sitting on a tree and sending short messages to the gopees bathing in the lake below. Demonstrations were done by Hindu Janjagruti Samiti. Together with that police complaints were also filed.

3. Denigration through cartoons: In Andhra Pradesh, in the issue dated 11th April 2009 of the daily newspaper ‘Enadu’ the incident of Bhagawan Sri Krushna delineating Geeta to Arjun had been depicted. In it Allu Arvind, the Telugu film producer is depicted as Krushna while Chiranjeeveejee, actor and a member of ‘Prajarajyam’ party is depicted as Arjun. Allu Arvind says to Chiranjeeveejee, ‘You destroy the army of the enemies, I will destroy mine.’

4. Using the picture of Bhagawan Sri Krushna for commercial benefit: A picture of Bhagawan Sri Krushna and Arjun riding a chariot and going towards the battlefield was used by ‘Tata-sky’ for advertising the cricket matches. In this picture the Bharatiya flag is shown on the chariot.

One can contemplate on these examples. Be aware about these denigrations occurring in day-to-day life.